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Characteristics of wheel forgings in quenched state

time :2020-10-13 author : from: scanning : classify :Industrial news

Forging is a processing method that uses forging machinery to apply pressure to metal blanks to produce plastic deformation to obtain wheel forgings with certain mechanical properties, certain shapes and sizes. Forging (forging and stamping) is one of the two major components. Forging can eliminate defects such as as-cast looseness during metal smelting and optimize the microstructure. At the same time, due to the preservation of complete metal flow lines, the mechanical properties of wheel forgings are generally better than those of the same material. The important parts of related machinery with high load and severe working conditions, except for simpler shapes that can be rolled, profiles or welded parts, wheel forgings are mostly used.

Wheel forgings have three main characteristics in the quenched state: structure characteristics; hardness characteristics; and stress characteristics.

Structure characteristics: According to the size of the wheel forgings, heating temperature, time, transformation characteristics and cooling methods used, the structure of the wheel forgings after quenching is mainly composed of martensite or martensite + retained austenite. In addition, there may be some undesirable Dissolved carbide. Both martensite and retained austenite are in a metastable state at room temperature, and they both have a tendency to transform into a stable state of ferrite and cementite. Hardness characteristics: The lattice distortion caused by carbon atoms is represented by the hardness, which increases with the increase in saturation (ie, carbon content). The quenched structure has high hardness and strength, and low plasticity and toughness.

Stress characteristics: including microscopic stress and macroscopic stress, the former is related to lattice distortion caused by carbon atoms, especially related to the maximum value of high-carbon martensite, indicating that the martensite is in a state of tension during quenching; the latter It is caused by the temperature difference formed on the cross section during quenching. The stress state of the surface or the core of the workpiece is different. There is tensile or compressive stress, which is balanced inside the wheel forging. If the internal stress of the quenched train wheel forging is not eliminated in time, it will cause further deformation and even cracking of the parts.

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